The article shows that Rome was an important reference point not only for the ancient world, but also for the social and economic structure of society, where special attention was paid to the development of agricultural crops and their use. In the Roman Empire, agriculture was the basis of commodity-money relations and wealth. Agricultural labor reached its maximum development in the Christian era. Roman rules and laws regarding rural estates were applicable to all citizens who inhabited the vast Empire. The article emphasizes that one of the main achievements of Roman land ownership was the transition from small-scale farming to large-scale land use, which allowed to cultivate more land, develop new varieties, and allocate funds for improving production. Thus, the slave owner achieved greater success than the small producer, and the small collective of slaves working in such a farm became the key to its good profitability. However, in the first century BC. in latifundia, where the labor of a large number of slaves was used, the control over the work of which was much weaker, and, consequently, such a farm was characterized by low productivity.
Keywords: Ancient Rome, Roman civilization, agriculture, agricultural industry.
Marina Tsapusova| Anna Shmatova "Agricultural Development in Ancient Rome" Agrarian History, Number 4, 2020 P. 10 - 16.