The article deals with the socio-economic development of Russia in the first half of the XIX century. The development of Russia was determined by the processes of disintegration of feudal-serf forms of economy and the establishment of capitalist relations. In the first half of the XIX century. Russia was an agrarian country: 9/10 of the countrys population was made up of peasants, and agriculture was the predominant branch of the economy. Special attention is paid to the development of agriculture. The development of agriculture was slow and extensive - developed by increasing the area of crops. The yield of bread remained at a low level. The main branch of agriculture was animal husbandry. In the 50s of the XIX century. in agriculture, there were 700 thousand hired workers. The issues of the peasantry and serfdom are also discussed. The peasantry was divided into three class groups: landlords (23 million people), specific (2 million people) and state (19 million people). In the first half of the XIX century, serfdom became an obstacle to the normal development of agriculture in the country. The crisis of serfdom showed the need for peasant reform. But the decrees adopted by the Russian emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I during the first half of the XIX century were temporary and did not change the policy in the sphere of enslavement of peasants. Serfdom was also the main reason for slowing progress.
Keywords: agriculture, the Russian Empire in the XIX century, serfs, serfdom.
Anastasia Kazyukhina| Denis Redkin "The Use of Serf Labor in Agriculture of the Russian Empire in the XIX-th Century" Agrarian History, Number 4, 2020 P. 24 - 36.